U.S. War Department, 1919: The Power & Aims of International Jewry
THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
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A U.S. War Department investigation and evaluation of issues generated by Jewish power. Compiled in August, 1919, and given SECRET classification until 1973. A hard copy of this document may be obtained from U.S. National Archives in Washington D.C., No. 245-1. Transcribed by the Polish American Relations Committee (PAPUREC; “Zeby Polska Byla Polska!”), 2001.
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THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
The recent emphasis in American public opinion placed on the part the Jews have been taking in world events, has seemed to warrant the Department in undertaking a preliminary study of the particular matters in controversy and also the larger question of the scope of Jewish influence in world affairs today. Among the more important points around which controversy has waged are:
I. The authenticity of the so-called Jewish Protocols, which purport to set forth a Jewish plan, centuries old, of world domination.
II. The question of how far Jewry as such is connected with Bolshevism, not only in the Soviet Government of Russia and Hungary, but in all the other countries of the world and particularly Germany and the United States.
III. The various phases of the Polish question:
(a) Whether the Jewish anti-Polish propaganda in the United States has been based on actual widespread Jewish Pogroms in Poland, or
(b) Whether, on the contrary, the stories of pogroms have been greatly exaggerated as a part of a deliberate Zionist propaganda to get for the Jews in Poland minority rights which both factions of American Poles publicly denounce as amounting to the creation of a state within a state.
(c) How serious is the nation-wide secret boycott against all Jews and Jewish goods recently started by the American Poles and other Slavic sympathizers ?
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It is self evident that in controversies such as these the Jews are strongly on the defensive on one side while the Slavic peoples are bitter in their denunciation upon the other. The important thing for us, however, is the fact that Americans in the main do not sense the situation nor appreciate its dangerous possibilities. Unfortunately there is too much truth in the charge made by the Slavs that the reasons for this is that the American press is so largely owned and controlled by the Jews. Witness the fact that the so-called Jewish Protocols which constitute by far the most serious charge against the Jews of those above enumerated, have never been mentioned in any American publication other than the official report of the Senate Judiciary Committee containing the testimony about the Protocols.
I. THE JEWISH PROTOCOLS:
The so-called Jewish Protocols purport to be the official pronouncement of the program of Jewish world domination drawn up by Theodore Herzl the founder of the modern Zionist movement and presented by him in 1897 to the inner circle of the first Zionist Congress at Basle, Switzerland. A summary of them was first published in Russia about 1905 by Serge Nilus who claims to have had a copy stolen from the Zionist files in France. In 1915 [barely legible on doc. possibly reads 1916] Nilus wrote another book entitled “IT IS NEAR RIGHT AT THE DOOR”, dealing largely with the danger of the Jew in world affairs. Here he sets out what he claims to be the full and exact translation of the Protocols. This book was published early in 1917 at a Russian Monastery near Moscow, but shortly after the first Russian Revolution of 1917 it was ordered suppressed and so even in that country it was exceedingly difficult to obtain.
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Dr. George A. Simons testifying before the Senate Committee said (Pages 135, 136 and 137 of the Record):
Senator Nelson: Are Lenine and Trotsky Yiddish ?
Mr. Simons: Lenine is from a very fine old Russian family, so we are told, and is intellectually a very able man. A fanatic, he was called the brains of this movement. Trotsky is a Jew. His real name is Leon Bronstein.
Senator King: Why are they so bitter toward religion, especially the Christian religion ?
Mr. Simons: There is a gentleman here in America who last night called on me, Dr. Harris A. Houghton, I think is his full name. I knew him out in Bay Side when I was the pastor of that church. He called on me last night. He is a Captain in the United States Army. I had not seen him for six years. He asked me whether I knew anything about the anti-Christian element in the Bolshevik regime. I said, “Indeed I do”. I do know all about it.” He said, “Did you ever come across the so-called Jewish protocols ?” I said “Yes, I have had them.” “I have a memorandum” he said, “and last winter after much trouble I came into possession of a book which was called “REDUSTI, ANTI-CHRIST.” Now, Dr. Houghton in the meantime had investigated this. He had come into possession of this book, which is quite rare now, because it was said that when the edition came out it was immediately bought up by the Jews in Petrograd and Moscow. That book reflects a real organization. That book is of some consequence. But the average person in official life here in Washington and elsewhere is afraid to handle it. Houghton says that even in his intelligence bureau they were afraid of it.
Senator King: Tell us about the book. What is bad about it ? Is it anti-Christian ?
Mr. Simons: It is anti-Christian and it shows what this secret Jewish society has been doing in order to make a conquest of the world, and to make the Christian forces as ineffective as possible, and finally to have the whole world, if you please, in their grip; and now in that book ever so many things are said with regard to their program and their methods, which devetail into the Bolshevik regime. It just looks as if that connected in some way.
Now, I have no animus against the Jews, but I have a great passion for truth: If there is anything in it I think we ought to know. The man who wrote it is considered a truth-loving man, a man held in the highest esteem by the authorities of the Russian Orthodox Church. ******
Senator Nelson: In this book that you refer to is there anything that goes to show that this Bolshevik government of Russia are supporting, directly or indirectly, this book of protocols ?
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Mr. Simons: Before answering that question I should like to see that translation, because I do not know how this thing has been done. (A pamphlet was handed to the witness.)
Senator Nelson: You have seen the original book ?
Mr. Simons: Yes. Some very finely educated Russian generals of note have told me that they considered this as an authentic thing, and they say the marvelous part of it is that nearly all of that is being executed under the Bolsheviki.
It is true by his extravagant statements since giving this testomony Dr. Simons has been somewhat discredited. However, while on the stand, under oath, he spoke with unusual care, and other people who had been in Russia at the time covered by his testimony were unable to criticize his story. Those of his statements reprinted in the press brought out the first public condemnation of Bolshevism by such Jewish leaders in America as Louis Marshall.
Recently the Department was able to examine what is said to be the only copy now in the United States of this Nilus book containing the Protocols. At that time photostatic copies of the Russian text were made for the Department files.
As stated above, there has been no reference in the press to the existence or the contents of the Protocols, nor to Dr. Simons testimony concerning them, although there was wide publicity to this more general charges as to the part the Jews were taking in the Bolshevik Government and an equally wide publicity to the vigorous denial of leading American Jews to this letter charge. Nevertheless, the testimony concerning the Protocols, which was given at an open public hearing and which has recently been published in the official Senate Report, has given them a certain limited publicity. We have been informed at second hand that an English translation of the Protocols has been shown to Justice Brandeis and Jacob Schiff each of whom vigorously disclaimed their authenticity, Mr. Schiff asserting that they are a creation of German propagandists. This explanation seems almost impossible considering the circumstances of the Russian publication – facts which
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perhaps were not made known to him, at the time he saw the translation, much less probable than the suggestion said to have been made by Justice Brandeis that the Protocols are the creation of a fanatic Russian anti-Semite.
It is not the purpose of this memorandum to make any argument toward establishing their genuineness. As previously stated, [hand written insert illegible] the Protocols are attributed to Herzl himself and one certainly must note the identity of thought found in the Protocols on the one hand and in Herzl’s public writings, and in the writings of other prominent past and contemporary Jewish leaders on the other. (Note 1.)
Protocol 1, page 1: “According to the law of being might is right.”
Protocol 1, page 3: “Our right lies in force.”
Herzl, “The Jewish State”, page 2: “For this, as indeed every point which arises in the commerce of nations, is a question of might. ******* In the world of today and for an indefinite period, it will probably remain so, might precious right.”
A number of similar illustrations such as the quotations relating to the “Terrible power of the Jewish purse” are set out in Appendix A.
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Some of the important events which have occurred since 1897 have fulfilled in a striking manner the predictions and aims expressed in the Protocols themselves. (Note 2.)
Furthermore, it is impossible to read far in the Protocols and in the public writings of Hess, Herzl and other Jewish Leaders without being impressed with the constant reiteration of certain fundamental
PART 2 – THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
1. The Jews are a nation held together by their commom enemies. (Note 3.)
2. With the Jews Nationality and Religion are inseparable and co-extensive.
3. All groups of Jews from the extreme radicals (Poole Zionist) to the most conservative, are united in this National Religious Movement.
4. Once a Jew always a Jew.
5. The teachings of the Talmud still exercises a profound influence on Jewish life.
6. Judaism and Socialism are different expressions of the same movement.
7. The Jews consider themselves the original exponents of internationalism and the League of Nations. (Note 4.)
Note 2: The coming of a world war is predicted which the Jews are to secretly promote. The creation of the chaos of Bolshevism is described as to be worked out by Jews all over the world as a step towards Jewish world dominion. For a fuller discussion of these and similar illustrations see Appendix B.
Note 3: See Herzl’s “Jewish State” page 4, and Dr. Solomon Prest, of the United Synagogues of America. (New York Times, June 17, 1919, page 3.)
Note 4: For a full discussion of these principles with citations from Moses Hess, Theodor Herzl, Bernard Lazarre, H. Sacher and the lectures now being distributed by the Zionist Organization in America, see Appendix C.
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In any event the Protocols are of suggestive value in the study of present-day International Jewry. They indicate possible or probable fields of Jewish activities, aims and methods, and as such, without relying on them at all as evidence in themselves, we have used them as a point of departure for some phases of our study.
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II. HOW FAR IS JEWRY, AS SUCH, CONNECTED WITH BOLSHEVISM, NOT ONLY IN THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA AND HUNGARY BUT IN ALL OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AND PARTICULARLY IN GERMANY AND IN THE UNITED STATES.
(a) There is, of course, a vast amount of material in the Department relating to this problem. Here, however, a mere outline will be sufficient to indicate the general tendencies. The following quotation will illustrate the widespread participation of Jews in all revolutionary movements:
(1) Theodore Herzl’s “JEWISH STATE”.
Page 8. “Educated Jews without means are fast becoming Socialists.”
Page 10. “When we sink we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of the revolutionary party.”
(2) Theodor Herzl’s “CONGRESS ADDRESSES”.
Page 13. “That the Jews constitute a disintegrating element is habitually maintained.”
(3) Lecture on “SOCIAL ZIONISM” published and now circulated by the Zionist organization of America.
Page 4. “From the days of the prophets down to the present time the Jew has been the inveterate enemy of tyranny and our contribution to the ranks of labor leaders and social philosophers is one of the marvels of history. In ancient times it was Isaiah, Jeremiah and the lesser Prophets who thundered agains those who added “house to house” while the common people were suffering against huger and privations. The thinkers and leaders of the Socialist Party during the last century, Karl Marx, Ferdinand Lasalle and many others were Jews, even though some of them sold their birthright for “a mess of pottage”. In fact any careful historian must come to the conclusion that the Jews are a race representing the great social factor in modern history.”
(4) Rabbi Judah L. Magnus, who has been very closely associated with Jacob H. Schiff, in a speech before the Jewish Labor Congress January 15, 1919 published in the JEWISH FORUM for February 1919 states:
Page 722: “When the Jew gives his thought, his devotion to the cause of the workers and of the dispossessed,
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of the disinherited of the world, the radical quality within him there, too, goes to the root of things, and in Germany he comes as Marx and a Lasalle, a Haas and an Edward Bernstein; in Austria he becomes a Victor Adler and a Friederich Adler; in Russia a Trotsky. Just take for a moment the present situation in Russia and Germany. The Revolution set creative forces free, and see what a large company of Jews was available for immediate service. Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviki; Bolsheviki; Majority and Minority Socialists whatever they be called ******* Jews are to be found among the trusted leaders and the routine workers of all those revolutionary parties.”
(b) RUSSIA !
Many of the witnesses who testified before the Senate Committee stated quite definitely that most of the prominent Bolshevik leaders were Jews. The following are quotations from one or two:
(1) Mr. Theodor Kryshtofovitch (page 424 Senate Record):
“Most of the people governing Russia now are Jews. I am not against Jews in general. They are a very capable and energetic people, but as you Americans say, the right man must be in the right place. Their place is in the Commission Houses, in Banks, in the offices, but not in the government of a fine agricultural country. They do not understand anything about agriculture, about production, about keeping materials and about distribution ********* I am talking about Bolsheviki; because if you take our Bolshevik Government, Lenine is a Russian and all these constellations that are turning around this sun are Jews. They have changed their names. For instance, Trotsky is not Trotsky but Bronstein.”
Again on page 431 he says:
“They oppose the Russian clergy and the Russian clergy oppose the Bolsheviki, and the Russian priests are treated very badly. For instance, they are set to do street work, cleaning the streets, paving streets, digging ditches, and so on. The workmen told me several times: ‘The Bolsheviki are sending out priests to work in the streets. Why do they not send their Rabbis ?’ And that is true. The Jewish Rabbis are not sent to work on the streets.”
Colonel V. S. Hurban, the leader of the Checho-Slovaks in Russia (page 444 of the Senate Record):
“It is also logical that the morals of the officials should be corrupt. I cannot deny it because it is a fact, and it is useless to deny it, that in the Soviets from the beginning there have been a very large percentage of Jews. It cannnot be denied. I can explain myself. We cannot blame them because it is just their revenge.”
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The following appears in a despatch to the Department, describing conditions in Hungary, quoted on page 37 of the confidential weekly report of the Division of Western European Affairs for June 28, 1919:
“Of the Communist Commissaries (of whom 25 out of 32 are Jews), several are assigned to each department.”
As a sample of general frank public comment on the Bolshevik regime in Hungary may be cited the following from an article on “The Forces of Disintegration” appering in THE NEW EUROPE of June 19, 1919:
“The internal situation in Hungary is comparatively simple at this moment. The issue of the war involved the bankruptcy of the whole ruling oligarchy and of the Jewish parasites who had battened upon them for over a generation past. But while the former fell with a resounding crash, a large section of the latter suddenly laid violent hands upon the machine of the State, and have since the Spring been endeavoring to recover, under a mask of advanced Communist theories, fragments of what the old imperialism had lost to the Magyar State. ********** Meanwhile we need be under no illusions as to the present regime in Hungary. In Budapest such illusions have long since vanished, and all who come from there tell the same tale. The present Communist Government of Budapest is merely a glorified edition of “Sussex Street”. Bela Kun – a convicted thief who is proud of his record and brags publicly of his capacity for lying – is on a par with Peter the Painter, while his colleagues (save a couple of honest doctrinaires, and an occasional figurehead selected for purposes of camouflage) are altogether worthy of him.
The early efforts of the Bolsheviki to get control in Russia were financed by German Government, largely through the German Jewish banking firm of M. N. Warburg and Company of Hamburg, established in 1798, one of the most powerful banks in all of Germany, and instrumental in directing the international policy of the old German Empire. Max Warburg, head of this firm, cooperated in this matter with his brother Fritz, Financial Attache of the German Legation at Stockholm and as such, head of and general paymaster
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for the German spy system. Practically all of the men who participated in the negotiations with the Bolsheviki in turning over these funds were Jews.
A number of the returning Military Attaches as for example, Lieutenant Waldo from The Hague, have emphasized that the personnel, methods and aims of the new German Foreign Office were, in a large measure, the same as those of the old regime.
Therefore, the statement in the BRITISH CONFIDENTIAL WEEKLY REVIEW for June 4, 1919 (page 2) would seem at least possible:
“Evidence is accumulating that the German Government directed the Munich Revolution through Agents provocateurs. The “ROTE FAHNE” seems to have been under Government control, and an organization called: “VEREINIGUNG ZU BEKAMPFUNG DES BOLSHEVISMUS”, and espionage association covering the whole of Germany, had exact information on every phase of the Munich rising. This association is headed by Prussian Officers and works in connection with the Government.”
PART 3 – THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
… Concerning the leaders of the Munich Soviet Revolution, Ben Hecht, himself a radical, in a cable published in the CHICAGO DAILY NEWS said:
“As for the Communist leaders in Bavaria, for instance Toller, Levine, Muhsam, Landauer, Lipp, and, in fact, all whom I met in the April Soviet days in Munich, were Jews.”
As to the general Jewish influence in Germany, Hecht states:
“One of the tragi-comic sides of the feverish German situation today is the position of the German Jews. Although less than one per cent of the German population consists of Jews, fully 75% of its present leaders – conservative and radical – are Semitic. The only political party which has no Jewish leaders is the centre or Catholic party, controlled by Mathias Erzberger. In Weimar, however, I have seen numerous centrist delegates to the national assembly whose Catholicism was political rather than racial.
As for the majority socialist, it must be remembered that the socialist party was founded by Karl Marx, a Jew, and co-ordinated by Ferdinand Lasalle and the elder Liebknecht, also Jews, while it was economically developed by Singer, another Jew. On the other hand the most active anti-socialist leaders in Germany – Theodor Wolff, George Bernhard and a dozen others of similar standing – are likewise Jews.
Hugo Haase, leader of the independent socialist party, is a Jew, as are practically all of its more important leaders, with the exception of Dr. Rudolph Breitscheld.
Nearly all of the newspaper editors and publicists whom I have encountered, from Maximilian Harden up and down the line, are Jews, and, so far as I can make out, nearly all the Berlin bankers are of the same race.”
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On April 8, 1919, the LONDON MORNING POST in an editorial commenting on the part the Jews were taking in Russian Bolshevism and the further fact that two of the leading British Jewish papers were openly pro-Bolshevik, stated:
“We have mentioned several times the disagreeable fact that the Russian Bolsheviks were Jews. These Jews are at the present moment in control of the Russian Government and they have powerful friends in all the Allied countries, who are helping them. We have appealed to the British Jews, but appealed so far in vain, to dissociate themselves from the cause which is doing the Jewish people terrible harm in all parts of the world. In reply the Jewish press shower upon us not only abuse but threats.”
This article brought forth a letter published in the LONDON POST of April 23, 1919 signed by the following ten leading British Jews:
Major Lionel de Rothschild, M.P.
Sir Philip Magnus, Bart, M.P.
Alderman Sir Marcus Samuel, Bart
Right Honorable Sir Harry S. Samuel, M.P.
Mr. Leonard L. Cohen
Sir Israel Gollancz
Lieutenant-General Sir John Monash, G.O.N.G.
Mr. Claude G. Montefiore
Sir Isidore Spielmann, C.M.G.
The letter stated in part:
“We have read with the deepest concern and with sincere regret certain articles which have recently appeared in two closely associated Jewish newspapers in this country on the topic of Bolshevism and its “ideals”. In our opinion, the publication of these articles can have no other effect than to encourage the adoption of the theoretic principles of Russian Bolsheviks among foreign Jews who have sought and found refuge in England. We welcome, accordingly, your suggestion that British Jews should “dissociate themselves from a cause which is doing the Jewish people harm in all parts of the world”. This is profoundly true, and we, on our own behalf and on behalf of numbers of British Jews, with whom we have conferred, desire to dissociate themselves absolutely and unreservedly from the mischievous and misleading doctrine which those articles are calculated to disseminate. We repudiate them as dangerous in themselves and as false to the tenets teachings of Judaism.
Partly in order to counteract the mistaken policy of the newspapers referred to, the League of British Jews was founded in November 1917. The proceedings and views of the League are published in a monthly bulletin, entitled JEWISH OPINION which can be obtained at the Offices of the League, 708-709, Salisbury House, E.C. 2, and which may eventually be merged
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“in a larger journal appearing at more frequent intervals. For we thoroughly concur with your criticism that the “British Jewish Community”, most of whom, as you rightly say, are by no means in sympathy with this (Nationalist) crusade, are being served very badly by their newspapers”. Meanwhile we take this opportunity of repudiating in public the particular statements in those newspapers to which you have felt it your duty to call attention.”
(f) UNITED STATES
Under date of February 15, 1919 Louis Marshall in denying the charges made before the Senate Committee that the New York East Side was Bolshevist and had furnished many Russian Bolshevists Commissars said: (Page 379 of the Senate Record):
“I read the Yiddish newspapers and am constantly called into consultation and conference with respect to every imaginable movement that can concern the public which affects the East Side, and I can, therefore, speak with authority when I say that there never has been a baser slander uttered than to charge by innuendo that the Jews of the East Side are Bolshevists.”
In a report dated May 20, 1919, M. C. Keyes, Treasury Secret Service Agent stated:
When Dr. Simons, formerly a resident of Russia made the statement that “90% of the Bolsheviks in New York were Jews”, the entire radical element in New York rose in arms and through the influence that they could exert they villified a man whose only crime was being too modest in his calculations. I am satisfied that instead of 90% it should be nearer the actual amount to say that 95% of the Bolsheviks are Jews. Only recently I had the opportunity to look over the records of one Soviet branch in New York. Out of a membership of 700, 625 were Jews. ****** ”
On June 17, 1919 a conversation was overheard between Nuorteva and Charles Recht, both Bolshevist Jews, in New York, in which it wa stated that the entire 500,000 Jews of the East Side were Bolshevists.
Vice Consul R. B. Dennis testyfying before the Senate Committee said: (Page 178 of the Senate Record)
“Mr. Dennis: I do not know whether this belongs in this hearing or not, but a thing that interested me very much was to discover a number of men in positions of power, commissars in the cities here and there in Russia, who had lived in America.
Senator Nelson: Who had been graduated here ?
Mr. Dennis: Yes.
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Senator Nelson: Where had they lived mostly, in New York ?
Mr. Dennis: In the industrial centers. I met a number of them and I sat around and listened to attacks upon America that I would not take from any man in this country; but I took it over there because I was asking favors, and I was not in a position to get into an altercation, as I did not want to get in jail.
Senator Nelson: Were the men who had lived for years in this country, and had gone back there, occupying prominent positions in the Bolshevik Government ?
Mr. Dennis: Yes Sir.
Senator Wolcott: In the main, of what nationality were they ?
Mr. Dennis: Hebrew.
Senator Wolcott: German Hebrews ?
Mr. Dennis: Russian Hebrews. The men that I met there had lived in America according to their stories, anywhere from 5 to 12 years.
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III. THE POLISH QUESTION
(a) Has the Jewish anti-Polish propaganda in the United States been based on actual widespread Jewish pogroms ?
Louis Marshall, Judge Mack, Jacob Schiff, Israel Cohen, the British Zionist investigator, and other Jewish leaders all answer “yes”.
Hugh Gibson, United States Minister to Poland on the other hand says the stories have been greatly exaggerated. For this statement he has been bitterly villified by Mr. Marshall and the American-Jewish News. Mr. Gibson also reported that many of the exaggerated pogroms stories were traceable to German propaganda sent out by way of Copenhagen. In this he is corroborated by the report of Colonel Mason of the Military Intelligence, General Staff, who spent a month in Poland during March and April.
The following quotation from Professor Askenazy, a Polish-Jewish educator and historian of Warsaw, appearing in the NEW YORK WORLD of July 2, 1919 and reprinted in FREE POLAND for July 16, 1919, would seem to present an accurate summary:
“The outside world is getting an entirely exaggerated idea, and I see my co-religionists in New York are acting on what was evidently unverified information coming from many sources. They have denounced Poland for things which never happened. With Poland young and struggling and beset with enemies it has enough trouble without having attacks from our people, who have always received better treatment from the Poles than from any other people in Eastern Europe. ****
PART 4 – THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
It is true that there have been local outbreaks against the Jews, for special reasons, due to upset conditions, and tales about Jewish profiteering, particularly from Russian Bolshevik Jews, who are trying to upset the Polish nationalist spirit. **** I remark with wonder that the leaders of America’s greatest Jewish societies are lending themselves to this movement, for all this agitation in America is only helping Germany and Bolshevik Russia. *** Whenever one Jew has been hurt in Poland, Jews say ten were killed and Germans say a thousand. If a Jew is killed in conflict, like the Jews in Vilna who fought with the Bolsheviki, the German press immediately spreads a tale of a Polish pogrom in Vilna.”
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(b) Have the Jewish Zionists as a part of a definite propaganda to get for the Jews of Poland minority rights, deliberately exaggerated the stories of pogroms in Poland ?
The BILL OF RIGHTS adopted at the American-Jewish Congress at Philadelphia on December 19, 1918, requested the Peace Conference to grant to the Jews in new or enlarged states to be created by the Conference, autonomous management of all Jewish communal institutions and insisted that such autonomy be a condition precedent to the creation of any such state. Poland being the largest and most important new state thus to be formed, it was natural that the Jews should center their efforts on establishing this principle there.
To quote from one of their own number, (Israel Cohen, in the WASHINGTON POST, May 30, 1919):
There is only one way in which the civil equality of the Jews can be preserved and that is by their being given the rights of a national minority. The Jews should be given autonomy as far as the administration of their religious, cultural, social and charitable affairs are concerned, but they should also be constituted a separate electoral college with the right to proportional representation in the Polish Parliament. And in order to establish a good working understanding between them and the government, it is advisable that there should be a ministry of Jewish affairs, the head of which should be responsible to a representative council of the organized Jewish communities.”
The Polish protest against the published demands of the Jews was followed by a publicity campaign to create a sentiment hostile to Poland, principally in the United States, for use at the Peace Conference in support of the Jewish claims.
In the United States the propaganda adopted by the Jews took two forms: (1) Newspaper attacks, and (2) organized protest meetings, parades and similar demonstrations.
(1) A careful reading of the prominent articles concerning alleged atrocities against the Jews in Poland which began appearing simultaneously in the leading American papers about the middle of May, shows a striking similarity in form, in substance and in
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headlines, a similarity so striking as to have no other reasonable explanation than that of a thoroughly planned propaganda. Information has come to us at second-hand that Reuben Fink, Washington representative of the Zionists, supervised the dissemination of this newspaper material. Confidential despatches from Copenhagen describe a German inspired organization abroad to supply news of pogroms for publication in the American-Jewish press.
Many of the first stories published in May were based on a report of Israel Cohen published in the LONDON TIMES of February 14, 1919. For example, on May 28, 1919 the NEW YORK HERALD and the WASHINGTON POST ran front page accounts by Herman Bernstein of Cohen’s report, but the phrasing was such as to lead the readers to believe that they described Pogroms which were still going on, whereas, Cohen was actually reporting as to events in November, December and January when, as is well known, during the chaos attendant on the triangular struggle with the Germans’ retreating and attempting to turn the country over to the Bolsheviki, and the Poles asserting their National Independence against both groups, there were, of course, many Jews, Poles, Germans and Bolshevists killed. Moreover, Cohen only recited the killing of 161 people during the entire three months covered by his report.
Contrast with this the statement of Rabbi Tittlebaum (State Department I. B. 861.4016/245 [decipherment may not be accurate]) concerning the persecution of the Jews in Southern Russia, in which he tells of the killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands, 5000 being killed in the town of Proscorof alone. There has been little publicity about this in the United States, probably because it would defeat the purpose of the Zionist propaganda as showing that the outbreaks against the Jews in Poland were more restrained and accompanied by much less loss of life that those in other places where chaotic conditions prevailed, such as Southern Russia.
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A further illustration of the way false stories of atrocities were used is shown by the articles about Vilna. The Department received word in May that the Zionist Bureau at Berlin reported 200 Jews killed at Vilna. On June 8, 1919 the WASHINGTON POST, NEW YORK TIMES and others carried a story from Paris under a large headline saying: “1600 Jews killed at Vilna.” From Gibson’s reports (telegram June 17, 1919), it appears that 64 Jews were shot and at least ten of them were admitted by the Jewish representatives to have been killed in the house-to-house fighting by which the Poles took the city from the Bolsheviki.
(2) In all the principal cities of the United States mass meetings were held, preceded by parades for which the Jewish workmen obtained a half holiday. The principal meeting was held at Madison Square Garden, New York on May 21, 1919 following a series of parades and other thoroughly organized demonstrations in which a large number of the Jews of the East Side participated. The most important addresses were made by Charles E. Hughes and Jacob Schiff. Mr. Hughes in defending himself against the charge by the Poles that he was playing politics, and had no facts upon which to base his protest, stated that “a careful investigation should speedily be had, but in the meantime the report which have come in – vouched for by such men as Judge Mack and Louis Marshall, men of recognized standing, ability and probity, – justify in my opinion, the most earnest protest.”
In determining whether Mr. Hughes was warranted in accepting this ex parte statement, it should be noted that both Judge Mack and Mr. Marshall, as well as Jacob Schiff, are all members of the Executive Committee of the Jewish Kehillah in New York, which Committee has as its Chairman Rabbi Judah L. Magnus who, at one time, was very pro-German and is now an open and avowed advocate of Bolshevism both in Russia and in the United States. As to the Kehillah itself, while it is ostensibly interested solely in Jewish Community work, some question has been raised to its alleged pro-German and subsequent pro-
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Bolshevik tendencies. Furthermore, Mr. Marshall’s partner, Samuel Untermeyer, received considerable notoriety at the Senate hearing on German propaganda because of his pro-German activity. Mr. Untermeyer has now appeared as chief counsel for the Rand School and the American Socialist Society in defending their charter.
In the NEW YORK TIMES of May 24, 1919, Felix M. Warburg is quoted as saying:
“It is to be regretted that the protest meetings of the Jews against the Pogroms which have taken place, in the desire to prevent further ones, appear in the papers as an attempt by the Jews to prejudice Americans against the new Polish Government.”
“Naturally the Jews are deeply interested in the welfare of their co-religionists, of whom about 5,000,000 are not living in the new Poland. What these protests mean is simply an earnest pleading that every possible step, official and unofficial, be taken by the new Polish Government to prevent outbreaks by an excited populace which, feeling its new strength and old prejudices may, if not held in check, break loose when not watched. That is all we hope for.”
As a commentary on this interview the following extracts from an article entitled “PEACE WITHOUT HONOR” by G. K. Chesterton, appearing in THE NEW WITNESS, an English anti-Semitic paper, of April 18, 1919, page 494, seems in point:
“What concerns us in the crisis of Europe is the facts, and when we know we are dealing with the facts of hatred, we connot be confused or even delayed by the fiction of hypocrisy. ***** and the fact is not that the Jews wish well to the new State, but that the Jews are at this moment using all their keen intellectual activity and their deep racial loyalty, working all over the world at high pressure, to prevent the new Polish State coming into existance at all.”
******** We know that if they lose their port (Danzig) it will not be by any act of English public opinion or any public opinion, but by the most secret of all secret diplomacy; that it will not even be given up by the English to the Germans, but by the Germans Jews to other German Jews.”
As a further comment in the attitude of the Polish Jews themselves toward the new Polish State may be quoted the following from Colonel Mason’s report:
“Poland has recently put into effect a universal draft law, and the army is being mobilized under it. The men
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are collected at training stations and are receiving training under the general supervision of a French General, the actual instructors being Poles who have had military training or experience in either the German, Austrian or Russian armies. The army is very largely composed of Poles. Upon the passage of the draft law, 90% of the Jews of the country called for what is known as the blue ticket, which is an exemption certificate given to those who are aliens. Incidentally this has an important political bearing as being an official announcement by 90% of the Polish Jews that they consider themselves not Poles but Jews per se.”
As a result of the publicity given these Jewish and German inspired anti-Polish protests, both in this country and abroad, the Poles were defeated and “The Combined Jewish Committees of the World” headed by Mr. Louis Marshall were able to secure (1) the special provisions set out in Articles 8 to 12, inclusive, of the Polish Treaty and, (2) the general acquiescence in these provisions on the part of the American Press. The American Poles, however, are more bitter than ever in their denouncement of these articles as undemocratic and un-American. Because of this attitude on their part it seems in point to analyze the articles in question.
Article 8 – provides that racial, religious and linguistic minorities shall have the right to establish, manage and control, at their own expense, charitable, religious and social institution and schools, with the right to use their own language and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
Article 9 – provides (Paragraph 1) that in public schools where there is a considerable proportion of Polish nationals of other than Polish speech the children shall be taught in their own language.
Article 9 – (Paragraph 2) Racial, religious and linguistic minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out of public funds ***** for educational, religious or charitable purposes. (This paragraph would appear to supercede in a large measure Article 8 above.)
PART 5 – THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
Article 10 – Educational Committee appointed locally by Jewish communities will provide for distribution of proportional share of public funds allocated to Jewish schools in accordance with Article 9 and for organization and management of these schools. The provisions of Article 9 concerning the use of language in schools shall apply to these schools.
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Article 11 – provides that Jews shall not be compelled to violate their Sabbath and that no elections or registration shall be held on a Saturday.
Article 12 – provides that the foregoing provisions constitute obligations of international concern and shall he placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations, no change to be made without the consent of majority of council of League of Nations which will be binding on the United States and the leading Allies. Any member of the League Council can call attention of the Council to possible infraction, and Coucil may take jurisdiction of question.
Mr. Marshall in an interview of July 24, 1919 said: “The rights which have been secured have not been affected in favor of the Jews alone, but for all minorities.” In this connection it is worthy of notice that Article 10 and 11 relate solely to the Jews.
In an earlier interview of June 30, 1919 (NEW YORK TIMES, July 1) Mr. Marshall said:
“Nothing thus far accomplished by the Peace Conference exceeds in importance the Polish Treaty. **** It is literally a charter of Liberty and the final act of emancipation of those who, for centuries, have been bereft of elemental human rights. ******* It enshrines in the law of nations the eternal principles of human liberty that constitute the distinctive features of the Ameican Constitution by means of which, despite the divergent racial elements of our population, we have become in fact as well as in spirit, a homogeneous, patriotic, just nation. We have long appreciated what at last is to enter into the consciousness of all people – that the true purpose of government cannot be realized until majorities look upon minorities as their equal before the law.”
This statement is misleading because it gives the reader the idea that the rights granted the Jews in Poland are only those enjoyed by Jewish Americans whereas, quite the contrary is true. Another interesting point is that this interview bears the same date as the text of the Polish Treaty, namely, June 30, 1919, but the interview appeared July 1, 1919 in the NEW YORK TIMES, while the Treaty was withheld until the day following.
Premier Clemenceau as quoted in the NEW YORK TIMES of July 2d defended the provisions above set out saying:
“The following articles are of a rather different nature, in that they provide special privileges to certain groups of”
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these minorities: ****
“Six – Clauses 10 and 12 deal specifically with the Jewish citizens of Poland. The information at the disposal of the principal Allied and Associated Powers as to the existing relations between the Jews and the other Polish citizens has led them to the conclusion that in view of the historical development of the Jewish question and the great animosity aroused by it, special protection is necessary for the Jews of Poland. These clauses have been limited to the minimum which seems necessary under the circumstances of the present day, viz., the maintenance of Jewish schools and the protection of the Jews in the religious observance of their Sabbath.
It is believed that these stipulations will not create any obstacle to the political unity of Poland. They do not constitute any recognition of the Jews as a separate political community within the Polish State. The educational provisions contain nothing beyond what is in fact provided in the educational institutions of many highly organized modern states. There is nothing inconsistent with the sovereignty of the State in recognizing and supporting schools in which children shall be brought up in the religious influence to which they are accustomed in their home. Ample safeguards against any use of non-Polish language to encourage a spirit of national separation have been provided in the express acknowledgment that the provisions of this Treaty do not prevent the Polish State from making the Polish language obligatory in all its schools and educational institutions.”
In an editorial in the NEW YORK TIMES of July 25, 1919 it is frankly admitted that the rights granted to the Jews in Poland would not be tolerated for a moment in this country and offers the weak excuse for differentiation that our immigrants came here voluntarily while the racial minorities in Eastern Europe have been there for thousands of years. This utterly misses the real point of the criticism, going to the ultimate justice of the rights granted.
Says the TIMES: – “Those in this country who have feared that our participation in this arrangement will make it easy for European nations to demand similar liberties for naturalized citizens in this country and thus make impossible any attempt at real Americanization are somewhat unduly alarmed. Most of the rights included in the term “cultural autonomy” are already possessed by everybody in America. Some of them are not: the provision for separate schools in which the mother tongue of the pupils is the language of instruction, though the language of the State must also be taught, and taught satisfactorily, would only perpetuate a condition which German immigrants have brought about in some parts of this country; but the further provision that such schools should receive part of the State funds would, of course, be inadmissible here – though we have heard in the last year or two of American public schools in which German is about the only language known to teachers and pupils. Such guarantees would also perpetuate the foreign language press.
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“But no racial group in America has any reason or right to claim privileges such as are provided in the Polish Treaty, since they are all recent immigrants who of their own choice came to a country which had its own institutions and used the English language. The racial minorities of Eastern Europe have dwelt alongside other people, intermingled beyond any hope of complete separation, for hundreds and sometimes thousands of years.”
In further relation to Mr. Marshall the following additional facts are of interest:
(1) On June 7th the Department issued a statement giving a summary of Mr. Gibson’s reports to the effects that the stories as to pogroms were greatly exaggerated.
(2) On June 10th Mr. Marshall gave out in Paris a report from his personal representative in Poland in which it was stated:
8 “In its horror and system the acts recalled the worst epochs of the Middle Ages.”
(3) This was followed on June 17th by a statement from Mr. Marshall making a bitter and vituperative attack on Mr. Gibson, charging that “Gibson’s report is necessarily based on the merest hearsay, parrot-like repetition of what has been told him in court circles.” Many specific charges of cruelty were also set out including several which have since been reported by Mr. Gibson as unfounded.
This statement was played up in “THE JEWISH DAILY NEWS” (New York) of June 18th under the headlines “Mr. Gibson Indicted”. The article stated:
“Mr. Louis Marshall, chairman of the Jewish Delegation in Paris, has not permitted the grass to grow beneath his feet. No sooner did Mr. Hugh Gibson, whose nomination as Ambassador to Poland is now before the Senate, report to the State Department that there were no pogroms in Poland that Mr. Marshall set to work to show that Mr. Gibson “has reported contrary to facts”. Through Mr. Charles A. Selden, the Paris correspondent of the “NEW YORK TIMES”, Mr. Marshall issued a statement giving chapter and verse of the atrocities committed against the Jews in Poland by the Poles themselves. From the statement which appears on this page, it will be seen that the Poles admitted the pogroms, yet Mr. Gibson never heard of pogroms or knows anything of them. In other words his report is an attempt to whitewash the Poles.” ***** In view of Mr. Marshall’s statement, and the attitude adopted by Mr. Gibson, we do not think the latter is the proper person to represent this country in Poland. His nomination is, as we have already said, now pending before the United States Senate. We have felt it our duty to protest against Mr. Gibson’s confirmation by the Senate and have sent the following telegram to Senator Calder, Wadsworth and Penrose:
[Page 24 of the Original Document:]
‘Louis Marshall’s indictment of Hugh Gibson, him deliberately reporting conditions in Poland contrary to facts, as printed in today’s ‘NEW YORK TIMES’, makes Mr. Gibson unfit to be American Ambassador to Poland. We appeal to you to block confirmation of his nomination.’
“We want to go on record that a man who in toto denies the wantom slaughter of human beings, of old men and women, of young girls and little children, is not the man to whom should be entrusted so important a post as the American Ambassadorship to Poland.
If the stories of the pogroms had been found to be untrue we would have accepted Mr. Gibson’s report, but when he bases his finding upon mere hearsay, we must dissent.”
In relation to the deliberate campaign to defeat Mr. Gibson’s confirmation, shown in the above quotation, added significance attaches to the confidential report to the Department from Secretary Lansing contained in telegram No. 2910 of June 26, 5 p.m. that “Judge Brandeis and Felix Frankfurter in conversation with Gibson yesterday, intimated that confirmation of his appointment by the Senate might be jeopardized by the nature of his reports which they stated had done great harm to the Jewish race.”
(6) On June 19, 1919 the American Mission stated in a telegram to the Department that Marshall and Cyrus Adler advised Ambassador Morganthau to decline to serve on the President’s commission to investigate pogroms against Jews and Jewish persecutions “urging that no Jew be appointed”. The telegram continued: “Mr. Morganthau is in doubt and requests that you promptly ascertain the opinion of Schiff, Elkus, Nathan Strauss, Wise, Rosenwald and Samuel Lachman as to his acceptance.”
On June 23, 1919 the Department sent duplicate telegrams to Louis Marshall at Paris and Felix Frankfurter in London conveying the following message from Judge Mack:
“All parties consulted advised Morganthau to decline appointment. Schiff, Elkus, Mack, Rosenwald, Wise, Nathan Strauss in wire to President are suggesting postponement until his return of commission and legal and technical advisors, but if inadvisable suggesting he consult Marshall and Frankfurter before acting. We have been allowed to see all of Gibson’s despatches. Statement commented on by Marshall erroneously attributed to Gibson, who is shortly due in Paris. Have requested that Gibson’s report be shown to Marshall. After seeing them and Gibson, advise strongly additional statement by Marshall. Mack.”
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It seems quite possible that these Jewish leaders realized that an honest report would destroy the ammunition for their anti-Polish propaganda and show up more strikingly the utter unfairness of the attack on Mr. Gibson’s confirmation.
PART 6 – of THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
… (7) On July 24 Mr. Marshall stated that:
“The horror of the Pogroms in Poland and Ukrainia will ‘stagger the world’ when the truth becomes known. Tens of thousands of Jews have been killed. The pogroms were not so much the result of an organized movement as they were the outgrowth of unsettled anarchistic tendencies in the countries where they occurred. They found expression in attacks of Jews.”
Heretofore he has never mentioned the Ukraine in his interviews, except very casually.
On August 1, 1919 Mr. Marshall made public the following telegram dated July 30, 1919 from Leo Motkin, Secretary of the “Combined Jewish Committee of the World” at Paris:
“Zuckerman arrived and confirms former communications. He reports new and terrible Pogroms which occurred during June at Kaminets, Podolsk, Kitaigorod, Ourinine, et cetera. The latest news is certified by three Rabbis and by other Jewish representatives at Khotine. I know these men who are from the Ukraine. They state that altogether 120,000 have been killed. In Proskurof alone 3,964 inhabitants and numerous passing people have been killed and 2,000 wounded. Among the killed were 1500 school children. Ukrainian Judaism fears total extermination. It is impossible to check the exact figures. In all of the pogroms undoubtedly dozens of thousands have been massacred.”
The Department has in its files a despatch (heretofore referred to on Page 17) dated April 2, 1919 from the American Commissioner at Constantinople quoting Rabbi Tittlebaum in which he stated hundreds of thousand of Jews had been killed and wounded in the Ukraine and that 5000 were killed in Proscorog alone. This information undoubtedly came to Mr. Marshall in April. Why then, has the story remained unpublished all these months ? It is asserted by the Poles to be because such a publication would have weakened, if not utterly destroyed the case which they claim the Jews were so laborously building up in support of their minority rights in Poland.
[Page 26 of the Original Document:]
On August 2, 1919 the day following the publication of the above telegram, the Ukrainian National Committee in New York issued a statement in part as follows:
“There are not and have not been pogroms in Ukraine outside the zone of Bolshevism. While unfortunately it probably is true that there have been many innocent victims of lawless bands in Ukraine, just as there have been Jewish victims of the Polish soldiery in Galicia, the killings are the work of the Bolsheviki and the Bolsheviki alone.” ******
“The Ukrainian People’s Republic has granted autonomy to all national minorities, including the Jews. Special privileges have been granted the Jews and members of the race are not only members of the General Rada but are included in the ministry. The Ukrainian paper money even bears inscriptions in Jewish characters. It is significant fact that the Ukrainian Jews have never raised a single protest against Petlura’s government, but have always supported it heartily.”
“Petlura, of course, has not been able to prevent pogroms in the portion of Russian Ukraine controlled by the Bolsheviki or the part of Galician Ukraine overrun by the Polish imperialists. He is making progress in both sections, however, and when he has restored the entire Ukrainian territory to the Ukrainians there will be no massacres in Ukraine.”
Whether the cooperation between the Jews and the Ukrainians here shown is born simply of their mutual hatred of the Poles, or whether in addition the Ukrainians are receiving financial support from the Jews, it is in any case particularly interesting just now when the Department is being flooded with anti-Polish protests from the Ukrainians and Lithuanians in this country and in Canada.
At least one group of the Ukrainians, were openly pro-German and pro-Austrian during the war and there is evidence that in this connection it should be recalled that the Ukrainian separatist movement was started by Austria.
As to the Lithuanians and their relations with the Jews here in America may be cited the full page ad which appeared in the NEW YORK TIMES, NEW YORK WORLD, CHICAGO TRIBUNE, BOSTON POST and WASHINGTON POST on June 3 and 4, 1919, protesting against “Polish
[Page 27 of the Original Document:]
Imperialism and Jewish Massacres”. In this ad appears a letter from the Lithuanian National Council to the Secretary of the American Committee for the Defence of the Jews in Poland, which contains the following:
“Your cause is our cause as well. The cause of all oppressed people the world over strikes a responsive chord in our hearts, but you have in common with us the additional fact that your oppressors are also our oppressors.”
“Using Bolshevism as a pretext, Poland has invaded, and is now occupying, large parts of Lithuania. Its troops are there indulging in atrocities so horrible that the entire liberal opinion of the world stands aghast and raises the query once more whether Poland can really be trusted with the powers of self-government.”
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(c) How serious is the nation-wide boycott against all Jews and Jewish goods recently started by the Americans of Polish descent and their Slavic sympathizers ?
The Foreign Language Bureau of the Government Loan Organization of the United States Treasury in a report of June 4, 1919 states:
“The demonstrations of May 21st, participated in by the Jewish people all through the United States in the form of a public protest against the persecution of the Jews in Poland, has produced on the part of the Polish population in the U. S. A. (nearly 4,000,000) a well managed, quietly conducted commercial and financial boycott of all Jewish merchants and vendors.
Both sides of the controversy have had ample public hearing in the Press of the U. S. A. The Poles privately maintain that the Jews are disappointed in the development of Poland into a free and independent Nation as the ambition of Jewish leaders for many generations has been to make of Poland a Jewish economic state commanding the commercial and financial channels of Eastern Europe, under a German protectorate.
Be that as it may, the Polish resentment of the Jewish propaganda against them is deep and bitter and their spirit of retaliation in this country proceeds against the Jewish pocketbook. The boycott is now well advanced all through this country and is active in every channel of trade, extending even to places of amusement.
From another source comes the information that other racial groups, namely, Russians, Ukrainians, Roumanians, Lithuanians, Czecho-Slovaks, Jugo-Slavs, Findlanders, Letts, all of Slavic origin will join in this Jewish boycott. Operations for management of same are now under way.”
The Department has received a number of telegrams from the American-Polish organizations calling attention to the danger of racial conflicts here and “condemning the insincere tactics of the Jewish imperialists”. (See particularly telegram from mass meeting of 15,000 in Boston June 8, 1919 representing 200,000 Polish-Americans in Massachusetts, and telegram of June 15, 1919 from mass meeting at Newark, N.J.) This last telegram also charges that Jewish employers in America have discharged Polish workers and Jewish landlords have evicted Polish tenants.
If such oppression is practiced on any large scale by the American Jews it will inevitably strengthen the boycott movement among the American Slavs and continue to fan the flame of mutual hatred between the two nationalities.
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